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孙致礼新编英汉翻译教程第2版配套题库含考研真题

[电子书+打印版]孙致礼《新编英汉翻译教程》(第2版)配套题库(含考研真题)

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内容简介

我国各大院校一般都把国内外通用的权威教科书作为本科生和研究生学习专业课程的参考教材,这些教材甚至被很多考试(特别是硕士和博士入学考试)和培训项目作为指定参考书。为了帮助读者更好地学习专业课,我们有针对性地编著了一套与国内外教材配套的复习资料,并提供配套的名师讲堂、电子书和题库。

《新编英汉翻译教程》(第2版)(孙致礼主编,上海外语教育出版社)一直被用作高等院校英语专业的翻译教材,被众多院校指定为英语专业考研必读书和学术研究参考书。为了帮助考生更好地巩固书本知识,我们根据包括本教材在内的多本教材精心编写了孙致礼《新编英汉翻译教程》(第2版)教材的辅导系列,主要内容包括:

1.孙致礼《新编英汉翻译教程》(第2版)笔记和考研真题详解

2.孙致礼《新编英汉翻译教程》(第2版)配套题库(含考研真题)

本书是孙致礼《新编英汉翻译教程》(第2版)配套题库(含考研真题)。根据孙致礼《新编英汉翻译教程》(第2版)的章节编排,以及翻译的不同层面,将本书划分为三章,十二个小节。多渠道精选与章节内容配套的习题,并对知识点突出的题目进行解析。所选试题基本涵盖了书中所涉及的翻译要点,以期通过实际操练帮助考生夯实英汉翻译理论知识,提高英汉翻译技能。

注意:本书提供电子书及打印版,方便对照复习。

圣才电子书编辑部

第1章 翻译的基本技巧

1.1转性与变态

⊙ 转性

一、将下列句子翻译成汉语,注意斜体部分名词的词性转换。

1. He was open now to charges of willful blindness.

【译文】这时,人们指责他装聋作哑。

2. The victory of justice over arbitrary acts, of reason over decadence and blindness, of democracy over imperialism, of good over evil, our victory of 25 October will represent one of the glorious pages of our history. And we shall be able to leave it to our heirs.

【译文】正义战胜了专断行为,理智战胜了堕落和盲目,民主战胜了帝国主义,善战胜了恶,我们在10月25日取得的胜利将作为光辉篇章之一载人史册,我们将把它传于子孙后代。

3. The sight and sound of our jet planes filled me with special longing.

【译文】看到我们的喷气式飞机,听见隆隆的机声,令我特别神往。

4. Elad Shimon was English and French teacher for two years at the Jewish school.

【译文】埃尔达德·西蒙在那所犹太学校教过两年英文和法文。

5. Talking with his son, the old man was the forgiver of the young man’s past wrong doings.

【译文】在和儿子谈话时,老人宽恕了年轻人过去所干的坏事。

6. I used to be a bit of a fancier myself.

【译文】过去我常常有点喜欢胡思乱想。

7. The computer is a far more careful and industrious inspector than human being.

【译文】计算机比人检查得更细心,更勤快。

8. The huge earthquake that hit off the coast of northeastern Miyagi prefecture earlier this year was a harsh reminder of the more elemental dangers that can threaten economic activity on the crowded and seismically vulnerable Japanese archipelago.

【译文】今年年初,一场强地震重创了日本东北部宫城地区海岸。这个触目惊心的事件提醒人们,还有一些更为基本的风险可能会威胁到人口稠密、易受地震冲击的日本列岛上的经济活动。

【解析】reminder本来是名词,意为“暗示;提醒的人/物;纪念品”,比如This is an important reminder for all of us.这是对我们所有人的一个重要的提醒。这里由于reminder是具有动作意义的英语名词,往往被转译为汉语动词。

9. Indo-China is a drain on French resources.

【译文】印度支那战争不断地消耗法国的资源。

10. He admires the President’s stated decision to fight for the job.

【译文】他对总统声明为保住其职位而决心奋斗表示钦佩。

11. He urged upon citizens of the country the necessity of persisting in participation in political controversies.

【译文】他告诫全国公民,必须坚持参加政治论战。

12. The doctor’s extremely quick arrival and commonly careful examination of the patient brought about his very speedy recovery.

【译文】医生迅速到达,并非常仔细地对病人进行了检查,因此病人得以快速康复。

13. High blood pressure is a contraindication(禁忌症候) for this drug.

【译文】高血压患者忌服此药。

14. These problems defy easy classification.

【译文】这些问题难以归类。

15. In handling the materials of history, each act of selection is also an act of judgment, and therefore the charge of bias is never completely answerable.

【译文】在处理历史资料时,每选一项资料就是做出一种判断,因此不能说完全没有偏见。

16. We have decided to place a trial order for the following on the terms stated in your letter.

【译文】根据来函条款,我公司决定试订下列货物。

17. We learn that you have been dealers of Chinese products for many years.

【译文】据我们了解,贵公司经营中国产品已有多年历史。

18. Your information as to discounts for a large order would be appreciated.

【译文】烦请告大批订货的折扣。

19. We are caught up in a discussion about the situation in Afghanistan when the professor walked into the classroom.

【译文】当教授走进教室时,我们正在兴致勃勃地讨论阿富汗局势。

20. Those waitresses recruited shall undergo a three-to-six-month probationary period.

【译文】经录用的女服务员,须试用3~6个月。

21. We are exporters of the above goods,having a background of some 30 years.

【译文】我们出口上述商品,已经经营了30来年。

22. After an impatient oath or two, she got her hair away from her eyes, sufficiently to obtain a sight of him.

【译文】她不耐烦地咒骂了一两声,把头发从眼睛上拨开,才看到了他。

23. Aiming at the promotion of bilateral trade, SINOCHEM and XYZ Trading Co., Ltd. have, through friendly consultation, come to the following agreement.

【译文】为促进双边贸易,中国化工进出口总公司和XYZ贸易有限公司,经友好协商,达成如下协议。

24. The passage of the bill by houses of Congress was hopeful.

【译文】两院很有可能通过该议案。

25. The memory of the great men who have lived in London and the poets and dramatists and novelists who wrote their works there lend the place a romance and charm that every visitor cannot but feel.

【译文】每当想起曾在伦敦住过的伟人以及曾在这里从事写作的诗人、剧作家、小说家,来访者不能不感到他们给这里带来的浪漫色彩和迷人魅力。

26. The establishment of communication between people belonging to different speech communities has long been an important form of linguistic performance.

【译文】长期以来,在隶属于不同语言群体的人们之间建立交流是语言行为的重要形式。

27. Accounting includes not only the maintenance of accounting records, but also the design of efficient accounting systems, the planning of income tax, and the interpretation of accounting information.

【译文】会计不仅包括做好会计记录,还包括设计有效的会计制度,规划个人所得税,以及解释会计信息。

28. We put forward for your consideration an offer for our new products, and hope you will take advantage of this opportunity.

【译文】我方就自己的新产品进行报价,供贵方考虑,希望贵方抓住本次机会。

29. The company planned to seek tenders from specified bidders in consideration of the size of the project and the sizable percentage of public funds to be injected into it.

【译文】考虑到该项目的规模以及投入其中的相当比例的公共资金,该公司计划从特定投标人当中寻求投标。

30. This is compelling evidence that market liberalization is compatible with a wide range of economic, social and political preferences.

【译文】这强有力地证明了市场自由化符合广泛的经济、社会和政治倾向。

31. Membership in the World Trade Organization has further resulted in even higher levels.

【译文】中国入世后更是引来了更多的投资。

32. —A developing economy with an impressive development plan requires large imports of capital goods, technology, raw materials and other inputs and consumer goods to carry out the plan effectively.

【译文】一个具有宏伟发展计划的发展中国家,为了有效地实施其发展计划,可能需要大量进口资本货物、技术、原材料和消费品及其他产品。

33. —Long-term interest rates have soared almost fourfold in the past three months as a result of plunges in the government bond market.

【译文】由于政府公债市场暴跌,长期利率在过去三个月中暴涨了几乎四倍。

34. The emphasis on data gathered first-handed, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.

【译文】强调收集一手数据,采用一种跨文化的视角来分析过去与现在的文化,这使该研究成为一门独特而十分重要的社会科学。

【解析】本句中,名词短语“The emphasis on data gathered first-handed, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present”为句子的主语。因为主语部分比较长,所以可以进行一定的拆分。“The emphasis on data gathered first-handed,”如果直译为名词词性“对……的强调”很不好组织语言结构,这个时候就可以采用词性转换,将名词“emphasis”翻译为动词词性的“强调”,因此,前半句的翻译就变成了“强调收集一手数据”。

35. A careful study of the original text will give you a better translation.

【译文】仔细研究原文,你会翻译得更好。

36. The international food shortage had a direct impact on Kuwait and other barren desert countries.

【译文】由于世界普遍粮食缺乏,这就直接影响到科威特和其他不毛的沙漠国家。

37. The growing awareness by millions of Africans of their extremely poor and backward living conditions has prompted them to take resolute measures and create new ones.

【译文】数以百万计的非洲人已逐渐意识到他们的生活状况异常贫穷落后,这就促使他们奋起采取坚决措施去创造新的生活条件。

38. He is a man of few words, but also an observer of life.

【译文】他言语不多,却喜欢观察生活。

【解析】“observer”这个身份词在汉语参考译文中转换成了动词“观察”。

39. Mozart was a great lover of music when he was a boy.

【译文】莫扎特儿时酷爱音乐。

40. The wrong power-line connection will damage the motor.

【译文】电源线接错了,就会损坏发动机。

41. Repeated changes in a flow direction ensure even diffusion over the entire exit area.

【译文】反复改变流动方向,可确保在整个出口域内扩散均匀。

42. With the further deterioration of the Western economy, the prospects of chemicals market become very dim.

【译文】随着西方经济状况进一步恶化,化工市场的前景变得暗淡无光。

43. An acquaintance of world history is helpful to the study of current affairs.

【译文】读一点世界史,对学习时事是有帮助的。

44. We admit the feasibility of her proposal.

【译文】我们承认她的建议是可行的。

【解析】“feasibility”在英文原文中是一个名词,在汉语参考译文中转换成了形容词“可行的”。

45. There was no provocation for such an angry letter.

【译文】写这样一封生气的信简直是毫无道理。

46The ship was helpless against the power of the storm.

【译文】那艘船只能任凭强大的暴风雨肆虐。

47. There was no haste or restlessness in his manner but a poised friendliness.

【译文】他从容不迫,和蔼可亲。

48. I recognized the absurdity of dealing with them through intermediaries.

【译文】我认识到,通过中间人跟他们打交道是愚蠢的。

49. We are deeply convinced of the correctness of those policies and firmly determined to pursue it.

【译文】我们深信这一政策是正确的,并有坚定的决心继续奉行这一政策。

50. He is a man of cool courage.

【译文】他是沉着果敢的人。

51. They say my story is a yawn.

【译文】人们都说,我的故事乏味得很。

52. I had the fortune to meet him.

【译文】我幸运地遇到了他。

53. Every man is a fool sometimes, and none at all times.

【译文】一个人只能有时傻,不能总是傻。

54. There is a limit to one’s youth, but no limit to his wisdom. Draw on the limitless wisdom during the short span of youth.

【译文】青春是有限的,智慧是无穷的,趁短暂的青春,去开拓无穷的智慧。

二、将下列句子翻译成汉语,注意斜体部分动词的词性转换。

1. The landing was designed to cut the peninsula in two.

【译文】登陆的目的是要把该半岛一切为二。

2. On that day they were escorted to the Great Wall of China.

【译文】他们那天和陪同人员去参观中国的长城。

3. A well-dressed man, who looked and talked like an American, got into the car.

【译文】一个穿着讲究的人上了车。他的外表和谈吐都像个美国人。

4. Mercury weighs about thirteen times as much as water

【译文】水银的比重约为水的十三倍。

5. Often property damage and disrupted lives result.

【译文】结果往往是财产遭受损失,生活受到影响。

6. This book aims at giving a general outline of the subject.

【译文】本书的目的是给出本学科的梗概。

7. As education aims to perfect gentlemanship, to human excellence, liberal education consists in reminding oneself of human excellence, of human greatness. [北京外国语大学2012研]

【译文】作为对完美的贵族气质和对人卓越品质的优异的培育,自由教育在于唤醒一个人自身的优异与卓越。

【解析】perfect在原句中做动词,意为“使……完美”,在翻译时活用为形容词,意为“完美的”。

8. It is our great pleasure to note that China has made great progress in economy.

【译文】我们很高兴地看到,中国的经济已经有了很大的发展。

9. Formality has always characterized their relationship.

【译文】他们之间的关系,有一个特点,就是以礼相待。

10. His novel is characterized by imagination and originality.

【译文】他的小说的特点是富有想象力和新意。

11. Fish features largely in their diet.

【译文】他们在食物方面的特色是以鱼为主。

12. Most U. S.spy satellites are designed to burn up in the earth’s atmosphere after completing their missions.

【译文】美国绝大多数间谍卫星,按其设计,是在完成使命后,在大气层中焚毁。

13. Our age is witnessing a profound political change.

【译文】我们的时代是深刻的政治变化的见证。

三、将下列句子翻译成汉语,注意斜体部分形容词的词性转换。

1. They are fighting for a better life.

【译文】他们为改善生活而斗争。

2. All these have laid a solid political foundation for consolidated national unity.

【译文】所有这些,为巩固国家统一奠定了坚实的政治基础。

3. Japan is Aisa’s dominant supplier of imports and technology.

【译文】日本占据着亚洲货物进口和技术供应的优势。

4. Doctors have said that they are not sure they can save his life.

【译文】医生们说他们不敢肯定能否救得了他的命。

5. They were suspicious and resentful of him.

【译文】他们不信任他,讨厌他。

6. Sugar and salt are both soluble in water.

【译文】糖和盐二者都溶于水。

7. Perhaps she would prod at the straw in her clumsy impatience. —Sredni Vash-tar

【译文】也许她会迫不及待地、笨手笨脚地翻弄那个草铺。

8. He then acted as a reluctant interpreter.

【译文】他当时并非情愿地当了一次口译员。

9. We must make full use of existing technical equipment.

【译文】我们必须充分地利用现有技术设备。

10. The recruiting assistant made a quick decision: Skid-Row was the most likely place to find a prospective recruit.

【译文】征兵助理很快做出了决定,斯基德街是最有希望找到一个应征人员的地方。

11. He stood watching her go down the street with a slow, self-satisfied sway of her body.

【译文】他站在那儿,望着她慢吞吞地、自鸣得意地扭着身子,沿街而去。

12. In the British system, a parliamentary election also determines who shall be Prime Minister, but the American Constitution provides for separate election of President and Congress.

【译文】按照英国制度,议会选举可决定首相人选,但美国宪法规定总统选举和国会选举分开进行。

13. We have acquired a keen sense of the diversity, dynamism, and progress of China under your policies of reform and opening to the outside world.

【译文】我们强烈地感受到你们执行的改革和对外开放政策给中国带来的多样化、活力和进步。

【解析】形容词keen译成副词“强烈地”。have acquired a keen sense of译作“强烈地感受到”。

14. Chou was a quiet and thoughtful man…

【译文】周恩来举止优雅,待人体贴……

【解析】翻译a quiet and thoughtful man时,不仅将形容词变成了副词,而且改变了句式,使用了主谓结构。quiet翻译成“举止优雅”,thoughtful翻译为“待人体贴”,合乎汉语描述人物的说法。

15. The bird is free to go almost anywhere.

【译文】鸟可以自由地飞到几乎任何地方。

16. He dialed the wrong number.

【译文】他按错了电话号码。

17. This is the very book I want.

【译文】这正是我所需要的那本书。

18. This steam engine is only about 15 percent efficient.

【译文】这种蒸汽机的效率只有15%左右。

19. Ice is not as dense as water and it therefore floats.

【译文】冰的密度比水小,因此能浮在水面上。

20. To a crazy ship all winds are contrary.

【译文】对于一只摇晃不定的船来说,不论什么方向的风都是逆风。

21. In their quest to lower costs to stay competitive, companies often wield the ax with little or no regard for the well-being of the people involved.[北京外国语大学2009研]

【译文】为减低成本以保持竞争力,公司经常大举裁员却很少顾及受此影响的人们的安康。

22. In that sense, unemployment is countercyclical, meaning that it rises when economic growth is low and vice versa.[北京外国语大学2011研]

【译文】这样来讲,失业是反循环现象,即经济增长缓慢,失业率上升,经济增长迅速,失业率下降。

23. —Obama emphasized that he would keep the dollar strong in order to attract foreign investment to the United States.

【译文】奥巴马强调,他会保持美元的强劲势头,以便吸引海外机构到美国投资。

24. I marveled at the relentless determination of the rain.

【译文】雨无情地下个不停,我感到惊异。

25. A week after his prelude to the President’s visit, China was in.

【译文】在他为总统出访所作的序幕之行后一周,中国成了最时新的话题。

四、将下列句子翻译成汉语,注意斜体部分副词的词性转换。

1. The paper said editorially that McMillan has stolen the western leadership during Dulles’ absence.

【译文】这家报纸的社论说,麦克米兰公司在杜勒斯卧病期间偷走了西方领导权。

2. The film impressed me deeply.

【译文】这部电影给我留下了深刻的印象。

3. The sun rose thinly from the sea.

【译文】淡淡的太阳从海上升起。

4. The computer is chiefly characterized by its accurate and quick computations.

【译文】这台计算机的主要特点时计算准确而迅速。

5. Since 1978, everything in China has greatly changed.

【译文】自从1978年以来,中国发生了巨大的变化。

6. The factories here are of modern construction.

【译文】这儿的工厂都是现代化建筑。

7. The buildings around are mostly of modern constructions.

【译文】附近的建筑大部分是现代化的。

8. The new book is out.

【译文】新书出版了。

9. The oil is up.

【译文】油用完了。

10. That day he was up before sunrise.

【译文】那天他在日出以前就起来了。

11. She opened the window to let fresh air in.

【译文】她把窗子打开,让新鲜空气进来。

12. As he ran out, he forgot to have his shoes on.

【译文】他跑出去时,忘记了穿鞋子。

13. After careful investigation, they found the schedule behind.

【译文】经过仔细研究之后,他们发现进度落后了。

14. The successful fishermen of that day were already in.

【译文】那天交好运的渔人们都已回来。

15. When he went back, the radio was still on, for he had forgotten to turn it off when he left.

【译文】他回来时,收音机仍然开着,因为他离开时忘记关了。

16. But he does speak knowledgeably and passionately about the spiritual underpinnings of the Chinese poetic tradition, which dates back 3500 years and is steeped in Taoism and Ch’an 禅 Buddhist philosophy.[聊城大学2017研]

【译文】但当他谈及可追述到3,500年前并饱含道家思想和禅宗(谈到禅,美国人对它的日本名称Zen更熟悉)哲学的中国诗歌传统的精神基础时,他显得真是学识渊博,慷慨激昂。

17. The blueprint must be dimensionally and proportionally correct. (conversion)[西南科技大学2017研]

【答案】蓝图的尺寸和比例必须准确无误。查看答案

【解析】题目要求用转换法来翻译该句,可将划线的副词处理成名词,译为“尺寸和比例”。

五、将下列句子翻译成汉语,注意斜体部分介词的词性转换。

1. The sentry stood guard with a submachine gun in his hand.

【译文】哨兵持冲锋枪站岗。

2. With these words she stood up and went away.

【译文】说完这些话,她起身离开了。

3. But even the larger molecules with several hundred atoms are too small to be seen with the best optical microscope.

【译文】然而,即便有几百个原子的分子也是太小了,用最好的光学显微镜也看不见它们。

4. What are they after? They are after name, after position, and they want to cut smart figures.

【译文】这种人闹什么东西呢?闹名誉,闹地位,闹出风头。

5. —An MBA degree is considered to be one of the important requirements for the corporate position.

【译文】人们认为工商管理硕士学历是担任这一公司职位的必要条件之一。

6. I am in.

【译文】我加入。

7. The cat is lying in the sun.

【译文】猫咪躺在地上晒太阳。

8. The whole city is in holiday array.

【译文】整个城市披上了节日的盛装。

9. In those years the Republicans were in.

【译文】那些年是共和党执政。

10. I am for the plan.

【译文】我支持这项计划。

11. She was on the phone.

【译文】她在打电话。

12. Noise figure is minimized by a parametric amplifier.

【译文】采用参量放大器后,便降低了噪声系数。

13. He is a jovial giant,with a huge appetite for food,drink and women.

【译文】他生性乐观,身材魁梧,贪吃贪杯又贪色。

【解析】“appetite”意为“胃口”,引申为“欲望”。受这一词义影响,介词“for”后的宾语都加上“贪”这一动词,是地道的中文表达。

14. Across the street, he went into the post and telecommunications office.

【译文】他穿过大街,走进邮电局。

15. At the news they were quite surprised.

【译文】听了这消息他们感到十分惊奇。

【解析】这里的介词“at”是因为固定搭配“be surprised at”而来的。在翻译时根据语境将其翻译成动词。

16. I found him at his book when I came into the room.

【译文】我走进房间,看见他正在看书。

17. On the wings of hope, of love, of joy, Miss Meadows sped back to the music hall, up the aisle, up the steps, over to the piano.

【译文】乘着希望的翅膀,爱的翅膀,快乐的翅膀,美多丝小姐飞奔回音乐厅,沿过道向上跑去,跑上台阶,走到钢琴面前。

18. “Coming!” Away she skimmed over the lawn, up the path, up the steps, across the veranda, and into the porch.

【译文】“来啦!”她转身蹦着跳着地跑了,越过草地,跑上小径,跨上台阶,穿过凉台,进了门廊。

【解析】英文表达喜欢用介词,而中文的表达爱用动词。这句话中的介词“up”,“cross”,“into”若翻译成中文的相应词类,则句子无意义。因此要明确地意识到,在翻译中,词性不予考虑,应以参考译文能否自然流畅地传递意义为准。

19. Overwhelmed with grief, Qu Yuan drowned himself in the Miluo River with a large stone in his arms.

【译文】屈原怀着悲痛的心情,抱着一块石头,投汨罗江自杀了。

20. Many were down with fever.

【译文】很多人因为寒热而病倒。

⊙ 变态

一、将下列句子翻译成汉语的主动句,原句主语位置保持不变。

1. His pride must be pinched.

【译文】他这股傲气应该打下去。

2. The happy man cannot be handed.

【译文】吉人自有天相。

3. This oil is used as perfume.

【译文】这种油可以用作香水。

4. On their domestic stations events in the Middle East were dismissed briefly.

【译文】在他们国内电台的广播中,中东事件只轻描淡写地报道了一下。

5. A new student is kept on probation for one semester.

【译文】新学生规定要见习一个学期。

6. The whole country was armed in a few days.

【译文】几天之内全国武装起来了。

7. This sort of advertisement is seen everywhere.

【译文】这类广告四处可见。

8. X-ray examination of the chest and heart should be routinely performed.

【译文】胸部和心脏X线检查应列为常规。

9. The article had been translated into English, but with little elegance to speak of.

【译文】这篇文章译成英语后失去了不少文采。

10. Specifically, clear standards are being setting up for accountability, transparence and participatory governance.

【译文】具体而言,明确的标准正在制定之中,为问责制、透明度和参与施政订立明确的标准。

11. With the outbreak of the war, flights were stepped up.

【译文】随着战争的爆发,飞行任务日益增加。

12. This liquid became mixed with the salt at room temperature.

【译文】这液体在室温下和盐混合了。

13. The sense of inferiority that he acquired in his youth has never been totally eradicated.

【译文】他在青少年时期养成的自卑感还未完全消除。

14. During this transfer, traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.

【译文】在这个转变的过程中,传统的历史研究方法中增加了新的方法,这些方法是用来解释历史研究中一些新的证据的。

【解析】这个句子的被动形式是“were augmented by…”,如果直接译为“被增加了”,明显带有翻译腔,去掉“被”字不仅不影响句子的意思,反而表达更自然。

15. Gerald Ford was voted out of office after two years and now Jimmy Cater, after four.

【译文】吉拉德·福特在位两年便落选下台,而吉米·卡特在任也就是四年。

【解析】原句是内含省略结构的被动结构。翻译时,句中主语不变,同时将省略的部分灵活补上。

16. Care should be taken to see if the letter is properly addressed.

【译文】注意看看信的地址是否写对了。

17. The new Command having been installed,my work there was done,and I returned to give my report to the House.

【译文】新的司令部成立后,我在那儿的任务就完了,于是我就回国向下院作汇报。

18. He was released immediately after Batista fled Cuba.

【译文】在巴蒂斯塔逃离古巴后,他马上获释。

19. In the afternoon rush of the Grand Central Station his eyes had been refreshed by the sight of Miss Lily Bart.

【译文】在中央火车站午后的旅客洪流中,他一眼瞥见了丽莉·巴特小姐的身影,顿时觉得眼目清新,精神一振。

20. The chemical plant was built in 1963.

【译文】化工厂建于1963年。

二、将下列句子翻译成汉语,采用“……是……的”的结构或添加“加以”“予以”,原句主语位置保持不变。

1. The class room is cleaned by the student.

【译文】教室是那个学生打扫的。

2. My first 30 years were spent in Western America.

【译文】我最初的30年是在西美洲度过的。

3. The decision to attack was not taken lightly.

【译文】进攻的决定不是轻易做出的。

4. It’s been a long haul but at last the prize is obtained by him.

【译文】这个奖项是他历经千辛万苦才获得的。

5. The train was destined for Beijing.

【译文】这列火车是开往北京的。

6. Rainbows are formed when sunlight passes through small drops of water in the sky.

【译文】彩虹是阳光透过天空中的小水滴时形成的。

7. Poets are born, but orators are made.

【译文】诗人是天生的,而演说家则是后天造就的。

8. But the march could not be stopped with bullets now.

【译文】但是这场游行已经不是子弹所能阻止得了的了。

9. Footprints on the sands of time are not made by sitting down.

【译文】沙滩上的足迹是走出来的。

10. Rome was not built in a day.

【译文】罗马不是一天造成的。

11. The table is made of wood.

【译文】这桌子是木制的。

12. The United Kingdom is made up of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

【译文】联合王国是由大不列颠和北爱尔兰组成的。

13. The telephone is invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.

【译文】电话是亚历山大·格雷姆·贝尔在1876年发明的。

14. The rate of motion or the speed of an object is given in units of length and time.

【译文】物体运动的速率是用长度和时间单位来表示的。

15. These stone processing machines have been introduced from Italy for the newly established factory.

【译文】这些石材加工机器是为新建工厂而从意大利引进的。

16. The Secondary School is named after a donator who made a contribution of 50 million yuan.

【译文】这所中学是以一名出资五千万元人民币的捐赠人的名字命名的

17. Although the dreams of seeing an d hearing things from far, far away was made by human beings several thousand years ago, such dreams came into reality in modern times.

【译文】虽然“千里眼”和“顺风耳”是人类几千年前所梦想的,但直到现代社会才梦想成真。

18. This five star hotel was built in 1997 for Hong Kong’s return to the motherland.

【译文】这家五星级酒店是为迎接香港回归祖国而于1997年建成的。

19. The project will be examined by a special committee.

【译文】这个项目将由一个专门委员会予以审查。

20. How can a series of motionless, or still, pictures be blended on a screen to pictures?

【译文】一组不动的即静止的图片是怎样在银幕上连到一起合成电影的呢?

三、将下列句子翻译成汉语主动句,将原句主语转为宾语。

1. The class room is cleaned by the students.

【译文】学生打扫了教室。

2. After a while an agreement was arrived at.

【译文】过了一会达成了协议。

3. A large sum of money has been put aside for that purpose.

【译文】已经为那桩事拨了一大笔款项。

4. New resources of energy must be found, and this will take time, but it is not likely to result in any situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap and plentiful energy we have had in the past time.

【译文】必须找到新的能源,这需要时间,而过去我们感觉到的那种能源廉价而充足的情况将不大可能再出现了。

5. Nearly 400 tons of accumulated refuse and dregs were removed altogether in five days.

【译文】五天内运走了近400吨堆积的垃圾与渣土。

6. Most letters from his wife are read to him by the nurse in the hospital.

【译文】医院的护士给他念了他妻子寄来的大部分信件。

7. It would be astonishing if that loss were not keenly felt.

【译文】如果(人们)不强烈地感到损失,那倒是奇怪了。

8. Air that is cooled suddenly shrinks as some of the moisture is squeezed out and clouds are formed.

【译文】突然冷却的空气,由于挤出了部分水分,体积收缩,就变成了云。

9. This cooperation—this association—will be strengthened by our talks this week in Beijing—the first such talks ever between Prime Ministers of China and Australia.

【译文】本星期我们在北京的会谈——中澳两国总理首次此类会谈——将会加强这种合作和联系。

10. An interesting study of family relationship and health of nightshift workers was carried by Tomas.

【译文】托马斯曾经做过一个关于夜班工人家庭关系和健康状况的有趣的研究。

【解析】本句中,由by引出行为主体,因此在翻译的时候将by后面的行为主体作为句子的主语,而将原句中的主语作为宾语。

11. Memoranda were prepared in advance of private meetings on matters to be discussed.

【译文】在举行个别交谈之前,我已经就所有要讨论的问题预先拟好了备忘录。

12. What measures have been or are being adopted by the local government to reduce air pollution? [浙江师范大学2012研]

【译文】当地政府正在采取或已经采取了哪些措施来减少空气污染?

13. The relatives of the missing can still be spotted at bus stations or outside Red Cross offices.[浙江师范大学2012研]

【译文】在公共汽车站和红十字会的外面,仍然可以看到失踪者的亲人们。

14. Metals are deliberately mixed to produce hundreds of new substances with desirable qualities not otherwise available.[浙江师范大学2012研]

【译文】人们将金属特意混合,可以产生数百种新物质,这些物质的特性合乎人们的需要,是一般金属所没有的。

15. At least two quarts of water are required daily by a normal individual.

【译文】一个正常人每天至少需要两夸脱水。

16. Cuff’s fight with Dobbin, and the unexpected issue of that contest, will long be remembered by every man who was educated at Dr. Swishtail’s famous school.

【译文】凡是在斯威希泰尔博士那有名的学校里念过书的学生,决不能忘记克甫和都宾两人打架的经过和后来意想不到的结局。

17. Many voices have been raised demanding the setting up of an Arab common market.

【译文】许多人要求建立一个阿拉伯共同市场。

18. New Zealand had no knowledge of this and had not been consulted on these reported plans.

【译文】新西兰不知道这件事,也没有人同它商讨过这些传闻的计划。

19. She hadn’t been told Bette’s other name, or she’d forgotten it. (Jack Lindsay:Betrayed Spring)

【译文】人家没告诉过她蓓蒂姓什么,要不然也许是她忘了。

20. The low staff morale was caused by the constant disagreement between the managers overseeing the project.

【译文】管理项目的经理们长期的意见不合使得员工士气低迷。

四、将下列句子翻译成汉语主动句,适当增添主语。

1. As it is imagined by many that operations of the common mind can by no means be compared with these processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of special training.

【译文】许多人认为,普通人的思维活动根本无法与科学家的思维活动相比,认为这些思维活动必须经过某种专门训练才能掌握。

【解析】这个句子中,有三处被动式,“be imagined”“be compared”“be acquired”。翻译时,都译成主动表达:认为,相比和掌握。其中,it is imagined by many that…为常用句式,译为“许多人认为”。

2. It was believed that a loose meeting like this could hardly come to any important decisions.

【译文】人们相信,像此次这样松散的会议是不大可能做出重大决定的。

3. It is generally considered not advisable to act that way.

【译文】大家普遍认为这样行事是不足取的。

4. It is well known that a diet high in fat can trigger a metabolic syndrome, a group of symptoms that pose as risk factors for diabetes and heart disease.

【译文】众所周知,高脂饮食会引发代谢综合征,这是构成糖尿病和心脏病危险因素的一组症状。

5. It is asserted that popularly elected presidents are more powerful and more dangerous for democratic consolidation than those elected by the assembly.

【译文】有人认为,公众选举的总统比通过国会选举出的总统权力更大,但也更容易危及民主的巩固。

6. It was rumoured that the dinner had been planned to please Lawrence.

【译文】有传言说安排这次晚宴都是为了讨好劳伦斯。

7. It is reported that Uruguay understands and backs China on human rights issues.

【译文】据报道,乌拉圭在人权问题上理解并支持中国。

8. In dealing with a challenge on such a scale, it may be said without fear of exaggeration that “united we stand, divided we fall”.

【译文】在面对这样大的挑战时,可以毫不夸张地说:“合则存,分则亡”。

9. It’s crystal clear: what’s been schemed for in his plan is power rather than money.

【译文】很清楚,他这个计划图谋的是权,而不是钱。

10. It will be seen from this that the need for water is growing day by day.

【译文】由此可见,对水的需求正在日益变得迫切。

11. It must be pointed out that Sino-foreign joint business is one of complementary and mutually beneficial partnership.

【译文】必须指出中外合资是一种互补互惠的合作关系。

12. It must be pointed out that Taiwan problems is China’s internal affairs.

【译文】必须指出台湾问题是中国的内政。

13. It is hoped that as many people as possible can join the volunteers in looking after the aged.

【译文】希望尽可能多的人加入这个志愿者的队伍来照顾老人。

14. It was reported that Yugoslavian President Tito told a Soviet envoy to “go to hell”.

【译文】据报道,南斯拉夫总统铁托叫一位苏联使者“别胡诌”。

15. It has been mentioned that Rebecca, soon after her arrival in Paris, took a very smart and leading position in the society of that capital, and was welcomed at some of the most distinguished houses of the restored French nobility.

【译文】我曾经说过,利蓓加到达法国首都巴黎不久之后,便在上流社会出入,又时髦,又出风头,连好些光复后的王亲国戚都和她来往。

五、将下列句子翻译成汉语,采用“被……”“为……所……”等汉语常用被动句式。

1. Robert was dismissed by the boss of the factory.

【译文】罗伯特被(给)工厂的老板开除了。

2. Two employees of the Department of Citizenship (higher education graduates) are appointed as administrative support to the Committee workings.

【译文】公民事务部的两名过国内说人员(高校毕业生)被任命为该委员会的行政助理。

3. But shortly afterwards they heard that every single member of that first party had been captured by Spanish Frontier police and put into a concentration camp.

【译文】可是,不久之后,他们听说,第一批的所有人都被西班牙的边防警察逮捕并关进了集中营。

4. I started to explain that I could not do my best since my spectacles had been taken away from me, but she wouldn’t let me finish.

【译文】我开始解释,我不可能干得很好,因为我的眼镜已给拿走了,但她不准我讲完。

5. Part or all of the light may be reflected, absorbed or transmitted by the thing or object that comes into its way.

【译文】一部分光或全部的光可能被(给)挡住其去路的东西或物体所反射、吸收或透射。

6. He was captivated by her figure, her blue eyes.

【译文】他被她的身材和蓝眼睛迷住了。

7. And as each and all of them were warmed without by the sun, so each had a private little sun for her soul to bask in…

【译文】她们大家,不仅个个身上都给太阳晒得暖烘烘的,而且人人心里都有一个小太阳,温暖着各自的心灵……

【解析】需要注意的是句中的“without”表示“在外部”的意思,而不是我们常用的“没有”的意思。

8. He got observed two days after his arrival.

【译文】他到了两天就遭到了监视。

9. Last year the region was visited by the worst drought in 60 years.

【译文】去年该地区遭受了六十年来最严重的旱灾。

10. They were given a hearty welcome.

【译文】他们受到热烈欢迎。

11. The visitor was flattered and impressed.

【译文】这位客人受宠若惊,深为感动。

12. The plan was especially supported by those who wished to have more exposure to the literary theory.

【译文】这个计划特别受到想更多地接触文学理论的人们的支持。

13. Our foreign policy is supported by the people all over the world.

【译文】我们的外交政策受到全世界人民的支持。

14. The girl was laughed at for her poor dressing.

【译文】这个女孩由于衣衫褴褛而遭到了取笑。

15. He was forced by family circumstances to leave school at sixteen.

【译文】他为家境所迫,16岁便辍学了。

16. He was blamed for everything her sister did.

【译文】他为妹妹所做的事而受责备。

17. The optimists believe defeat is not their fault: circumstances, bad luck, or other people brought it about. Such people are not bothered by defeat.

【译文】乐观主义者相信失败并不是他们的错,环境、运气不佳或其他人都有可能造成自己的失败。这些人从不为失败所困扰。

18. In his late thirties he was almost knocked down in his despondency of the unsuccessful career.

【译文】近四十岁时,由于事业上的挫折,他几乎为失意所毁。

19. The proposal on the improvement of the investment environment is accepted by all the members of the committee.

【译文】这条关于改善投资环境的建设为该委员会全体委员所接受。

20. He was described as impressed by Deng’s flexibility.[西南科技大学2017研]

【译文】据说他为邓的灵活态度所感动。

21. Most letters from his wife are read to him by the nurse in the hospital.

【译文】他妻子给她的信件,大多数是由医院里的护士念给他听得。

22. Every country will be represented by its prime minister.

【译文】各国都将由总理代表。

23. Boats are moved by oars or by the wind and ships by paddlewheels or screws.

【译文】船由桨或风推动,而船由桨轮或螺丝推动。

24. The United Kingdom is made up of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

【译文】联合王国是由大不列颠和北爱尔兰组成的。

25. The Secretary was aware that final decisions must be held open for the President.

【译文】国务卿心中有数,最后的决定必须由总统来做出。

六、将下列句子翻译成汉语,采用“把”字句、“将”字句等汉语处置式。

1. He was regarded as a Republican by everybody, even though he had always thought of himself as an “Independent”.

【译文】所有的人都把他看成共和党人,尽管他自己一直认为自己是“无党派人士”。

2. By evening the occupation was complete, and the people were chased off the streets by an eight o’clock curfew.

【译文】至傍晚,占领已告完成。八点钟开始的夜宵把人们从街道都赶走。

3. Rivers are controlled by dams.

【译文】拦河坝把河流控制住了。

4. The present recovery led by external demand should be shifted to one led by domestic demand in order to get the economy on a full-fledged recovery track.

【译文】应该将目前因外部需求而促进的经济复苏转移到以内部需求而促进的经济复苏上来,以便使经济回归到完完全全的经济复苏的轨道上来。

5. We hope that all corrupt practice will be uprooted.

【译文】我们希望将一切贪污行为根除。

6. On account of this he was brought before the allied officers.

【译文】由于这个原因,把他带到盟军军官面前。

7. Gasoline may be separated from other components of crude oil by distillation.

【译文】用蒸馏方法可使汽油与原油的其他组成部分分离开来。

8. If water is heated, the molecules move more quickly.

【译文】如果把水加热,水分子就运动得更快。

9. By evening the occupation was complete, and the people were chased off the street by an eight o’ clock curfew.

【译文】至傍晚,占领已告完成。八点钟开始的宵禁把人们从街道赶走。

10. The famous hotel had been practically destroyed by the big fire.

【译文】大火使这家有名的旅馆几乎全部毁灭。

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